Kamis, 19 April 2012

MPLEMENTATION NATIONAL CHARACTER EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN SCHOOLS


A. Principles of Character Education Culture and Nation
Lickona, Schaps, and Lewis (2007) mentions the eleven principles of character education to be implemented by the education in schools, namely:A. Disseminating the main ethical values ​​as the basis for the formation of character;2. Comprehensively describe the characters include knowledge, feelings, and good behavior;3. Using a comprehensive approach, intensive, and proactively to the development of character;4. Creating a school community have a mutual concern;5. Provide opportunities for learners to perform immoral acts;6. Provide a challenging academic curriculum and meaningful as well as respect for all learners, develops character, and helped his success;7. Encourage self-motivated learners;8. Involve all citizens to act responsibly in school character education students;9. Encourage the moral leadership of school principals, teachers and school staff;10. Involving parents and the community of learners in support of character education;11. Evaluating the success of character education, a good evaluation for schools, teachers, and students.
While the principles of culture and national character education in the school include (1) does not teach but to develop character values, (2) continuity, (3) is integrated in all subjects, self-development, and school culture, (4) carrying out educationwhich enable the learners and fun.
A. Do not teach but to develop character valuesCharacter values ​​instead of ordinary materials that are not taught as subjects. Character values ​​are internalized through the learning process. That is, the values ​​are not used as study materials are presented as well as teach other subjects in order to achieve competence related to the concepts, theories, procedures, or any facts. Competencies to be achieved in each subject is used as a medium for developing cultural values ​​and national character. For example, in high school biology class subjects X Semester 2, one of the Competency Standards (SK) is "4. Analyze the relationship between the components of the ecosystem, changes in matter and energy and the human role in the ecosystem balance "with the Basic Competence (KD)" 4.2 Explain the relationship between human activities with the problem of destruction / pollution of the environment and preservation of the environment ". Learning activities to achieve the SK and KD can be done for example through discussion groups that develop character values ​​such as "religious, labor, democratic, curious, friendly / communicative, responsible, and caring environment".One thing to keep in mind that the learning activities is to achieve competence that includes cognitive, affective and psychomotor.Therefore, teachers do not need to change the SK or KD-existing but identified, mapped, and develop character values ​​of the charge contained in the SK or KD. Teachers also do not have to carry out a special study to develop character values.The consequences of this principle of cultural values ​​and national character are not asked in the test or exam. However, learners need to know the meaning of a value that is they grow themselves. They should not be in a position neither know nor understand the meaning of the values ​​of these characters.
2. Continuity (ongoing)True values ​​of the character already present in individual learners. Development of character values ​​is a very long and sustained. Each student has a character education from parents and from the lower levels of schooling. Character education in school is a continuation of the education that has gained more than 9 years of students, from the home (parents and community) and over enrolled in primary school (SD) and High School (SMP).
3. Integrated in all subjects, self-development, and school culture.
 
In principle, character education in school can be done through learning (integrated in every subject), through self-development (counseling services and extra-curricular activities), and through the culture of schools (school culture).

4. Educational and fun to enable learnersThis principle asserts that, education and culture of the nation's character is actually done by learners. In this case teachers implement the principle of "tut wuri handayani" in any behavior that indicated the learner. This principle states that the educational process conducted in an atmosphere of learning the cause of pleasure and not indoktrinatif. Beginning with an introduction to understanding the value that was developed, the teacher leads the students to actively formulate questions, locate and collect information from various sources, process the information already possessed, to reconstruct the character values ​​that already exist in themselves, develop values, fostering the cultural values ​​and character in them through a variety of learning activities, both in the classroom, at school, as well as tasks outside of school.
B. Implementation of Education Culture and National CharacterCulture and national character education must be done through good planning, the appropriate approach, and effective implementation. Schools do not have to force myself to develop all the cultural values ​​and national character, but can determine the priority of the character values ​​that will be developed in school. For that schools need to do the analysis by considering the context of the resources available at the school (internal conditions) and environmental conditions around the school (external conditions). Further development of the values ​​specified character is inserted into the document Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) is the vision, mission, and goals for the school.Some of the ideal approach to do related to character education can be described as follows:A. A holistic approachDo not add a character education program or set of programs to school, but a cultural transformation in the life of the school. One approach to implement character education is through a holistic approach that integrates character development into every aspect of school life. A holistic approach is the reform of the school because everything in school is based on relationships between and among students, teachers, staff, and community.Teacher-centered model of learning in the classroom should be changed into a democratic classroom where teachers and students held a meeting to establish unity, establish norms, and solve problems.
2. Build a community of caringCommunity care means that everyone in the school that students, teachers, and staff to treat others with kindness and respect. To achieve these objectives, it needs an active role in shaping the culture and character in both the classroom and at school. This can be done by implementing a school program where all the components work together to establish rules of behavior in achieving the desired objectives. This strategy helps students learn to build and maintain positive relationships with others.3. Teach character values ​​through the curriculumImplementation of classroom curriculum in particular has a significant opportunity to integrate the values ​​of the characters in the learning. For example, we will teach the material on "the role of humans in the ecosystem" to students. Students were asked what they would do if the environment around them is damaged or contaminated? Where are they taking out the trash? Why did they do that? What are the implications for their lives? With questions like that, like the character values ​​of discipline, responsibility, teamwork will awoke to self-learners, so that will shape the character of the students to care about the environment.4. Discussion GroupDiscussions are a great way to instill the values ​​that cool to be able to form a good character of students. With a discussion of students develop the values ​​of honesty, thoughtful, critical thinking, tolerance, respect of friends, work, responsibility, and reflection.5. Service Learning (Service Learning)Service learning is a learning approach in which academic goals through community service. In service learning students will perform the selection, planning, and then reflect on all of their experiences. In addition to academic content, students also practice valuable skills such as organization, collaboration, and problem solving. With this service students will learn to save a virtuous character, showing respect, taking responsibility, empathy, cooperation, citizenship, and perseverance.
 
Culture and national character education is not taught as a separate subject, but done in a way: integrated in the learning of all subjects, through self-development activities, and school culture, and supported by the daily activities at home (Figure 2).









Diagram 2 culture and national character education in school
A. Integration of culture and national character education in the learningCulture and national character education is not just the responsibility of subject teachers of Religious Education or Citizenship (Civics). On learning activities, development of an integrated value of the character can be implemented in all subjects (embeded approach). Especially for subjects of Religious Education and Civic Education, for the second mission of this subject is to develop values ​​and attitudes of the development of character values ​​should be the main focus, so that the values ​​of the characters must be the impact of learning (instructional effects) and also the impact of accompaniment (nurturant effects). Meanwhile, for other subjects, which formally has a special primary mission, then the values ​​of the characters are still required to be developed to learners as a result of accompaniment (nurturant effects).
The development of cultural values ​​and national character is integrated in every subject, starting with mapping or to identify the values ​​of the characters in the SKL subjects, objectives, SK, and KD corresponding to each subject. The teacher needs to incorporate cultural values ​​and national character in the Syllabus and Learning Implementation Plan (RPP).
Development kkarakter values ​​through learning is done as follows:a. SK and KD Assessing the Content Standard (SI) to identify whether cultural values ​​and national character have been included in it;b. Mapping that shows the relationship between eye SKL lesson, objective subjects, SK and KD with character values;c. Mencantumkankan cultural values ​​and national character in the syllabus;d. Lists the values ​​of the characters listed in the syllabus to the RPP;e. Determine the achievement indicators for the characters and develop assessment instruments;f. Implement the learners are actively learning that allows learners have the opportunity to internalize the values ​​of character and show it in the appropriate behavior;g. Provide assistance to students who have demonstrated the internalization of values ​​to show the behavior of the characters.
Many ways to integrate these values ​​into the character of subjects, among others: express the values ​​contained in the SK and KD, where the direct integration of the values ​​of the characters became an integral part of the subjects, using imagery and make comparisons with the events similar in the lives of students, transform negative things into positive values, the values ​​expressed through discussion and brainstorming, assignment of reading a biography / life story of great men, using songs and music to integrate the values ​​of character, dramatic play to describe the events that contains the values ​​of character, conduct various activities such as service activities, field trips and activities to bring klub-klub/kelompok human values.

2. Integration of culture and national character education in personal developmentSelf-development is not a subject that must be cared for by teachers. Self-development aims to provide opportunities for learners to develop and express themselves in accordance with the needs, talents, and interests of each student in accordance with the conditions of the school. And self-development activities facilitated or guided by a counselor, teacher or educational staff to do in the form of extracurricular activities. Self-development activities carried out through counseling services relating to personal problems and social life, learning, and career development of students (Appendix Permendiknas No. 22 of 2006 Chapter II.B.3.a.1).The development of cultural values ​​and national character in the development of self in high school can be done through a variety of extra curricular activities, for example:a. Spirituality (Spiritual Islam, Christian Spiritual, Spiritual Catholic, Hindu Spiritual, Spiritual Buddhist, Confucian Spiritual) - to develop religious values, tolerance, and democratic.b. Scientific group of teens - the development of values ​​avid reader, curious, creative, recognize excellence.c. Traditional dance - the development of values ​​patriotism, creative.d. Red Cross youth - the development of the values ​​of friendship, love peace, social care.e. Scouting - developing the values ​​of discipline, hard work, creative, independent.f. Force flag raisers (Paskibra) - development of the values ​​of discipline, patriotism, national spirit.g. Sporting achievements - the development of the values ​​of sportsmanship, hard work, discipline, respect for achievement.
In program development, planning and implementation of education and character of the nation's culture can also be done through integration into the daily activities at the school through the following matters.
a. School routineRoutine activities are activities performed learners constantly and consistently every time. Examples of routine activities such as ceremonies every Monday, cleaning all the rooms and the school every Friday (Friday net); compulsory reading scheduled for each class, and so forth.
b. Spontaneous activitySpontaneous activity is an activity carried out directly on the spot.Spontaneous activity can be done for good behavior and attitudes and not good. This activity is done usually when it is known the good deeds that need to receive praise or a misdemeanor of the citizens of the school which should be corrected on the spot. Examples of such spontaneous praise for good deeds to his students that breaking up the fight, helping a friend who fell from the motorcycle, and so forth. For actions that should be corrected on the spot such as throwing trash out of place, not dressed neatly, and so forth.

 
c. ModelingModeling the behavior / attitude of citizens of the school who can be role models / examples. Examples of such ideals is never too late, well-dressed, polite-spoken, and so forth.
d. ConditioningConditioning is an effort to create conditions to support school education keterlaksanaan culture and national character. Life of the school should reflect the cultural values ​​and desired character of the nation. For example, all the rooms including laboratories, libraries, and the toilets are always clean bins provided that adequate and segregated between organic and inorganic waste; provided magazines and wall art equipment sufficient to develop creativity, and so forth.
3. Culture and national character education through the school cultureSchool culture is the atmosphere of school life where there is interaction between students, between teachers, between staff, between students with school principals, teachers and education personnel, as well as between citizens of the community school.Such interactions are bound by different rules, norms, and ethics that apply in school. Leadership, example, kindness, tolerance, hard work, discipline, social awareness, environmental awareness, a sense of nationhood, and responsibility are values ​​which were developed in the school culture. Development of school culture is becoming an integral part of the development of school autonomy as conceptualized in the School Based Management (SBM). Thus every high school and systemic can gradually evolve into a dynamic and advanced schools. One example of a school's culture is the culture of the net. Schools are clean condition is realized through the school program conducted jointly by all members of the school (principals, teachers, students and staff), supported by parents of students and the community around the school. In every corner of the room is provided separate bins for dry waste, wet waste, and garbage can be recycled. Learners and all school residents accustomed to dispose of waste in accordance with the type of waste removal. Through the net as it expected cultural awareness to the citizens of the school environment clean is increasing.
School culture is believed to be one of the aspects that influence the development of learners. If the atmosphere is full of school discipline, honesty, compassion then it will generate the output character good learners. Teachers will feel peace and comfort, which have an impact on improving classroom management. A good classroom management will affect the high academic achievement.
Furthermore parents and community leaders are expected to provide reinforcement to the behavior of noble character who has developed in school to become daily activities at home and in their respective communities.
C. Indicators of Culture and Character Education Keterlaksanaan Nation
Keterlaksanaan culture and national character education in school can be identified based on the conditions contained / occurs in schools and in the classroom, as well as the behavior exhibited by all citizens of the school associated with the values ​​of the characters are developed. In general, this condition can be identified from physical appearance are clean and tidy, friendly and welcoming service, as well as academic and non academic achievement (3 P). As a reference for the evaluation of self-education unit untukmelakukan associated with 3P 3P can use the example of instruments which have been prepared by the Directorate of SMA (attached). Schools can develop other indicators in accordance with the conditions and needs of each
Indicators of school is a marker that is used by the principal, teachers and school personnel in planning, implementing, and evaluating the school as the implementing agency and the character of the nation's cultural education. Class indicator is a marker that is used by teachers in planning, implementing, and evaluating the class as a developing nation's culture and character. Behavioral indicators are markers that indicate the behavior of students in classes and schools that can be observed through the observation of the teacher when a student performs an action in schools, questions and answers with other students, the answer given to the task and learner to teacher questions, as well as writings of participants students in the reports and homework.
A. Indicators are cultured and characterized, among others:No School Indicators character valueIndicators Indicator Class behavior of learners1 Religious • Have a facility to serve• Provide an opportunity to carry out the worship• Celebrate the day of religious holidays• pray before and after of learning• Linking with the subject matter of power and nik-mat of God the almighty • Conducting worship in a place that has provided the school• Following the religious activities that are programmed school• Expressing gratitude for dika-runiai faith-health, and the opportunity to study2 Honest  Provide facility where finding a missing bag. Transparency school on a regular basis financial statements. Provide canteen honesty. Provide a suggestion box and the complainant's. Have operating instructions dissatisfaction welcoming achievements of learners and completion of assessment of learning outcomes. Transparency periodic assessment reports. Prohibition of carrying communications equipment at the time of test / exam Provide an opportunity to students expressed dissatisfaction with his ha-sil ngenai assessment study and Solu his mission • Report on the work / practice in accordance with the data collected• It's never cheating on a test / exam• Pay for food in the canteen in accordance with the price• Report items found at school• Delivering keti-dakpuasan on learning outcomes assessment as directed opera-tional3 Tolerance • Giving equal treatment to all citizens regardless of ethnic schools, religion, race, class, social status, economic status, and the special ability.  not differentiate the treatment of all students • Discussing with a friend of the opposite sex, ethnicity, religion, social status, economic status, and ability4 Disciplines  Have a record of attendance. To give appreciation to the citizens of the school discipline Have the discipline of students, teachers, staff Have the discipline facility use school bags Enforce the rules are unfair to sanction violators school discipline• There is a note-dakhadiran keti learners in the classroom• Implementation of learning time• There is a timetable and details of picket duty class• The test is always returned to ask the following learners • Comply with school discipline• Always come to school on time• Always perform the tasks of all teachers• Implement a class picket schedule and task details5 The hard work  Creating an atmosphere of healthy competition in the school. Creating an atmosphere of challenge and encourage schools to work hard. Creating an atmosphere of healthy competition in the classroom. Creating the conditions of work ethic, never give up, and durability of learning. Creating a learning atmosphere that spurred labor resistance. Achieve the behavior of hard-working and studying.
6 Creative • Hold a contest of creativity in arts, cultural, and scientific • Work assignments / projects that challenge the emergence of new works both authentic and modification.• Following the quiz contest, competition of scientific works, art and culture• Working on tasks / projects related to new work7 Independent • Work assignments to be done right on their own• • Working on their own assignments given by teachers8 Democratic schools • Engage citizens in decision-making SETI ap-• The deputy head of the school board elected by the teachers• Selection of chairman of the council are open • open class president election• Learning through group discussions to solve problems • Appreciate the differences in life• Expressing opinions with the ethical and polite language• Receive the results of a joint decisionCuriosity 9  Provide information or communications media (print or electronic media) for the expression for the citizens of the school.
• Facilitating people to explore the school of education, science, technology, and culture, with menyedikan adequate libraries and laboratories.  Creating a classroom atmosphere that invites curiosity. Exploration of the environment in a programmed manner.• There is a medium of communication or information (print or electronic media). • Always ask on various occasions• Utilize a variety of facilities in schools to explore something10 The spirit of nationality  Having a memorial event program and the great days of the local and national heroism Conduct regular school ceremonies. Conducting ceremonies and holy days of local and national heroism. Have a program to visit historical places. Conducting competitions related to the great days and local heroism and nationalism-de  Creating a learning methodology that gave rise to the cooperation of different student's race, ethnicity, socio-economic status.
• Provide individual tasks or groups of days of great and heroic• Organise visits to places of historical subjects that are relevant according• Displaying a picture of local and national hero• Displaying the motto is to foster the spirit of nationalism • Engage in a variety of memorial day and the heroism of both organized by schools and other institutions• Following the race on the big day and the local and national heroism. Work with classmates of different race, ethnicity, socio-economic status.• Discuss the great days of national.• Visit to places of historic11 Love homeland  To establish rules prioritizing the use of domestic products. (Clothes, props, etc.)• Provide information (from the source print, electronic) on the natural and cultural richness of Indonesia.  Displaying photos president and vice president, state flag, state emblem, a map of Indonesia, Indonesia picture of community life. Using domestically-made products. Using the media and tools of learning products in the country  Using Indonesian well and correctly. Prioritize the use of domestic products (clothes, props, etc.)

12 Appreciating the achievements • Having a program to improve academic and non academic achievement for all people in schools• Giving the award to an outstanding school citizen• Have the data and report on the accomplishments ever achieved• Display and maintain signs achievement award.• Utilizing the achievements to promote the school  Provide awards for the achievement of students.• Display and maintain signs in classroom achievement award. • Provide safe all the friends who excel• Strive to improve the performance to be best in various fieldsFriendly 13 / communicative • Having a school citizen who is able to give information in accordance with its assignments• Available facilities are easily accessible key information  The class that facilitates the interaction antarpeserta learners and between learners and teachers.
 Respect and honor guard. Communicate with learners in a dignified manner• Greet residents and guests with friendly and courteous school• Serving residents and guests with friendly and courteous school
• Communicate with the language of polite14 love peace • Creating a school environment that is safe and secure • Create a classroom environment safe and secure • Not doing the bullying, pemalak's, etc.• breaking up a fight friend15 Joy of reading  Has library management and development program Motivate residents to utilize the school library optimally Provide facilitated litas and fun atmosphere for reading
 Have a schedule of "must read" which is set for each class Have a record of the frequency of visits and borrowing books at the library. Giving rewards for residents who have frukuensi high schools in the use of the library. Provide a bulletin board facility. Conducting learning to use the library and other learning resources.• Provide tasks that can motivate students to read• Make use of the library and other learning resources on a regular basis.• Following a variety of activities to enhance the ability and willingness to read. (Synopsis, summary, clipping, Mading, etc.)16 Care for the environment • Have a program to increase citizen awareness of the school environment.• Have written rules about the application of environmentally conscious culture.• Having a motto / slogan that enhance a sense of care for the environment.• Implement a system of reward and punishment in the application of environmental care.• The entire school environment clean, green and landscaped / maintained.• Provide facilities and infrastructure (toilets, garbage cans, etc.) care about the environment. Have biopori in area schools. Creating a caring neighbor order of the classroom environment. habituation maintain cleanliness and environmental sustainability class. Provide the dump and hand washing facilities in the classroom. Integrate the culture of care for the environment in relevant subjects. habituation energy efficient.• Demonstrate caring environment in everyday school activities.• Allowing efficient use of electricity and water Conduct habituation separate organic and inorganic species.• Use organic waste to the school.
17 Social Care • Have a program to improve social care school citizen.• Have written rules about the application of social care culture.• Having a motto / slogan that enhance a sense of social care.• Implement a system of reward and punishment in the application of social care
 Creating a neighbor concerned about the social order in the classroom. habituation maintain order and safety classes. Integrate cultural social care in the relevant subjects.
• Having a social awareness on the environment.• Collect and deliver aid to disaster victims• Sharing the meat qurban to society around the school.• Conduct a social visit.• Looking school friends or people who are sick.• Attend events held by the citizens of the school.• Achieve silaturrahmi culture.
18 • Having a reporting responsibility for the implementation of school programs that can be accessed publicly.• Have students' progress reports are publicly accessible.• Divide tasks according to ability and function of each resident school.• Carry out the duties in good accordance with their respective job descriptions. Creating a learning method that is able to foster a sense of responsibility of the learner. Provide appreciation to students who have been carrying out their duties properly. Provide opportunities for learners to complete the job. Carry out all assigned tasks in accordance with the rules. Perform a task without prompting. Demonstrate initiative to address the problem at hand.

(Adapted from the Development of Culture and National Character - Puskur)
D. AppraisalAchievement of cultural values ​​and national character are not assessed through the test / exam. Assessment is done continuously, through anecdotal records (anecdotal records) that records created when the teacher knows the learner behavior related to the values ​​of the characters are developed. In addition, teachers can provide a task that contains a question or events that provide opportunities for learners to demonstrate the values ​​of the character it has. For example, learners are asked to express his attitude toward efforts to help the beggar is still strong but lazy, able to give assistance to people who miser, or other matters that are common to the things that can invite conflict in him.Based on observation, anecdotal notes, tasks, reports, and so on, teachers can give judgment on the achievement of an indicator or a character value. These considerations can be expressed in the following qualitative statements.BT: Not Visible (when the students do not show early signs of behavior that is expressed in the indicator).MT: From Visible (when the students have started to show early signs of behavior that is expressed in the indicator but not consistent).MB: Start Developing (if the students had shown any signs of behavior that is expressed in a consistent indicator and starts).MK: Become a Habit / part of the culture (if students continue to demonstrate behavior that is consistently expressed in the indicator).

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